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The study results showed no difference in preference between breeders or owners, and that they both attached most importance to the health traits such as SM and MVD, followed by eye shape and level of inbreeding.

The 17-section questionnaire topics included: shape of the eyes (choices: walleyed, small, prominent), coat colour, muzzle length, level of inbreeding, purchase price of the dog, syringomyelia status (choices: not tested, tested and clinical symptoms present, and tested and free), eye disease status (choices: not tested, tested and clinical symptoms present, and tested and free), and mitral valve disease status (choices: not tested, tested and clinical symptoms present, and tested and free). Liuti) studied various measurements taken from MRI scans of two groups of brachycephalic dogs -- 20 with Chiari-like malformation (CM) including 15 cavalier King Charles spaniels, and 10 without CM including 1 CKCS -- all in the flexed-neck position.

The team obtained MRI scans of 66 cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCSs) over the age of 4 years.

Rusbridge) relied upon an innovative machine learning technique (a computerized data analytics technique using computational methods to learn information from data without relying on a predetermined equation as a model).

In an effort to explain the pain suffered by CKCSs affected with Chiari-like malformation and syringomyelia, she and her team hypothesized that their spinal cords terminates lower along the spinal column than in the other breeds. Cole) examined 16 cavalier King Charles spaniels (CKCSs) -- 9 without syringomyelia (SM) and 7 with SM -- using an electronic von Frey anesthesiometer to determine if there are any the dogs' mechanical sensory thresholds (ST) for pain, and if so, to measure those differences. The researchers report finding "no significant difference in sensory thresholds between dogs with and without SM." Canadian and UK researchers locate two possible genes related to CM/SM syrinxes in cavaliers.

Using MRI scans, of the CKCSs' spinal cords, only 3 terminated at vertebra L6, 23 terminated at L7, and 22 terminated at the sacrum; whereas of the 41 control dogs, 8 terminated at L6, 27 at L7, and only 5 at the sacrum. They report finding that there was a significant decrease in ST in the pelvic (hind) limbs of SM-affected CKCSs compared with normal cavaliers. In a March 2018 article, a team of researchers from the UK and Canada (Frédéric Ancot, Philippe Lemay, Susan P. Rouleau, Clare Rusbridge, Zoha Kibar ) examined DNA samples from 65 cavalier King Charles spaniels and narrowed down the likely potential "candidate" genes for CM/SM to PCDH17 in CFA22 (Canis Familiaris Autosome) and ZWINT in CFA26.

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In a January 2018 study by Belgian investigators (Katrien Wijnrocx, Liesbeth François, Peter Goos, Nadine Buys, Steven Janssens ), they conducted a on-line Internet questionnaire study about the attitudes of breeders and owners of cavalier King Charles spaniels in the importance they attach to health (syringomyelia and mitral valve disease) and conformation traits in the selection of a CKCS. The shorter distance between the brain and the frontal bone also was highly significant in SM-affected dogs. In the SM dogs, the distance between the rostral (again, towards the oral or nasal region) end of the soft palate and (a) the sella turcica (a saddle-shaped depression in the body of the sphenoid bone of the human skull, where the pituitary gland sits), and (b) the foramen magnum basioccipital portion of occipital bone, was significantly shorter than the non-SM control group of dogs.doctoral thesis at the University of Surrey, she reports on mapping MRI scans of the brains and cervical regions of cavalier King Charles spaniels (along with Affenpinscher and Chihuahua breeds) to determine if head shapes and brain positioning within the skulls could predict pain due to Chiari-like malformation (CM pain).She used a technique of triangulating circles, lines, and angles of the dogs' MRI scans, creating a unique signature for each dog.Further consideration of factors such as cord tethering and the difference in mechanical properties of white and grey matter is needed to fully explore this possibility." Korean surgeons successfully use Lyoplant as a collagen implant dural substitute in foramen magnum decompression surgery.In a December 2017 article, a team of Korean veterinary surgeons (Wan-Sang Park, Sung Hun Kang, Jun-Su Kim, Sung-Guon Park, Hee-Sup Moon, Sang-yeon Kim, Sung-Jin Hong, Tae-Sung Hwang, Hee-Chun Lee, Yong-Hyun Hwang, Hyun Park, Jae-Hoon Lee ) report the successful grafting of Lyoplant, a pure collagen implant that is produced from bovine pericardium, as a substitute for the portion of the brain's dura removed during foramen magnum decompression surgery of a Maltese dog diagnosed with caudal occipital malformation syndrome (COMS) also known as Chiari-like malformation, and syringomyelia.The study originated as a response to a recently invoked law that will oblige Flemish CKCS breeders to screen their dogs prior to breeding.Residents of Belgium, Denmark, the UK and the USA participated, the total number being 114, of which 90% were female.Ohio State researchers use von Frey anesthesiometer on 16 cavaliers to compare pain sensory thresholds in CKCSs with and without SM. They also reported a similar relationship in the thoracic (fore) limbs but did not achieve statistical significance). Knowler, Karen Kennedy, Sandra Griffiths, Giunio Bruto Cherubini, Jane Sykes, Paul J. They used MRI scans of the craniums of affected and normal CKCS to compare size and shape measurements of regions of the brains, to identify lines and angles associated with sizes of syrinx diameters.In a May 2018 abstract presented at the November 2017 "Pain in Animals" Workshop, Ohio State University researchers (S. NC State researchers study 54 cavaliers to determine if SM-affected CKCSs have lower sensory thresholds. The PCDH17 gene is involved in the adhesion and sorting of cells in the brain and spinal cord during tissue development.


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